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Demensia Alzheimer merupakan kelainan pada otak yang sebabkan penurunan daya ingat, kemampuan berpikir dan berkomunikasi, serta perubahan tingkah lalu seseorang.

Di antara beragam faktor risiko munculnya demensia, merasa kesepian adalah salah satunya. Kesepian yang dimaksud merasa tidak diperhatikan.

“Bisa saja seseorang, di tengah-tengah keluarganya, tetapi merasa kesepian. Kesepian jangka panjang itu juga faktor risiko demensia,” ujar Spesialis saraf dari FK Unika Atma Jaya, Dr.dr. Yuda Turana, SpS usai peresmian ATZI Center oleh Alzheimer Indonesia di Jakarta, Jumat Malam

Alzheimer bisa dipicu oleh sejumlah faktor, seperti gaya hidup, kesehatan hingga psikologis. Dokter spesialis penyakit saraf, Yuda Taruna menyebutkan salah satu penyebab Alzheimer yakni loneliness atau merasa kesepian

Sebuah penelitian yang dimuat Journal of Neurosurgery Neurologi and Psychiatryberupaya menyelidiki kaitan antara rasa kesepian dengan kepikunan. Selama 3 tahun, peneliti melacak data kesehatan dari 2.000 orang lebih yang tidak memiliki tanda-tanda demensia dan hidup sendirian.

Kesemua peserta diperiksa kesehatan mentalnya, ditanyai kesehatan fisik serta kemampuannya untuk melaksanakan rutinitas sehari-hari, juga ditanyai apakah merasa kesepian atau tidak. Setelah itu, para peserta diuji tanda-tanda demensia atau kepikunannya.

Di awal penelitian, sekitar 46 persen peserta hidup sendiri, 75 persen mengaku tidak memiliki dukungan sosial dan kurang dari 20 persen mengaku merasa kesepian. Setelah 3 tahun, sebanyak 9,3 persen orang yang tinggal sendiri mengalami demensia, sedangkan pada orang yang tinggal bersama orang lain hanya 5,6 persen.

Orang yang merasa kesepian memiliki kemungkinan 2 kali lebih besar mengalami demensia dalam waktu 3 tahun dibandingkan yang tidak kesepian. Perbandingannya adalah 13,4 persen banding 5,7 persen.

Hasil analisis lebih lanjut menunjukkan bahwa orang yang tinggal sendiri maupun yang menduda atau menjanda memiliki kemungkinan 70 – 80 persen lebih tinggi mengalami demensia dibandingkan yang tinggal bersama orang lain. Kecenderungan ini berlaku sama pada pria maupun wanita.

Ketika memperhitungkan faktor-faktor lain, peneliti menemukan bahwa orang yang kesepian memiliki kemungkinan 64 persen lebih tinggi terserang berbagai jenis penyakit. Temuan ini menegaskan bahwa rasa kesepian akan menambah risiko demensia di kemudian hari.

“Menariknya, fakta bahwa ‘rasa kesepian’ lebih berkaitan dengan demensia daripada ‘menjadi sendirian’. Hal itu menunjukkan bahwa ini bukanlah situasi objektif, tetapi tidak adanya persepsi kedekatan sosial yang meningkatkan risiko penurunan kognitif,” ungkap para peneliti seperti dilansir Medical Xpress, Selasa (11/12/2012).

Menurut peneliti, rasa kesepian dapat mempengaruhi kognisi dan memori karena jarang digunakan. Atau, kesepian bisa jadi merupakan tanda-tanda munculnya demensia dan menjadi reaksi atas gangguan kognisi serta perubahan seluler yang terjadi di otak.

Semoga bermanfaat!



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